Background: Thiazides are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of mild and moderate hypertension. Despite their recognized effect, the mechanism by which thiazides reduce systemic blood pressure remains uncertain. The prevailing belief is that thiazides reduce blood pressure primarily via enhancement of salt excretion consequent to the inhibition of the Na-Cl Cotransporter (NCC) in the Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT). However, recent reports point to a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance as a major mechanism of antihypertensive effect of thiazides. It is plausible that both mechanisms, renal and extra-renal, may be operating simultaneously. Recent studies point to compensatory mechanisms in the kidney distal nephron that may play a role in blunting the diuretic effect of thiazides. Not much information is available about the efficacy of thiazides in controlling blood pressure in individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).
Objective: This review will discuss the latest updates on the use and efficacy of thiazides derivatives as diuretics and antihypertensive medications in CKD patients.
Conclusion: Thiazides remain effective as diuretics and antihypertensive agents in individuals with low GFR.
Keywords: Diuretics, hypertension, kidney disease, Pendrin (SLC26A4), kidney tubules, Na-Cl cotransport (SLC12A3), thiazides.
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