Background: Hypertension is considered a major health problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as approximately 80-85% of CKD patients’ suffer from hypertension in the United States. Hypertension is the second leading cause of CKD after diabetes and is strongly related to morbidity and mortality. It has been found that there is a relation among hypertension, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine levels.
Objective: Since there is a strong relation between hypertension and CKD, and hypertension seems to lead to cardiovascular diseases, which have epidemic proportions in CKD, this review article discusses the etiology of hypertension and the existing optimal therapies that contribute to the hypertension and heart rate management.
Results: There are many approaches that contribute to the management of hypertension and heart rate in CKD patients. Lifestyle modifications in combination with drug therapy lead to the better control of hypertension in CKD patients.
Conclusion: Hypertension is strongly related to cardiovascular diseases in CKD patients. Since this relation exists and hypertension leads to cardiovascular diseases, the management of hypertension and increased heart rate should be a main therapeutic target in these patients.
Keywords: Hypertension, chronic kidney disease, treatment, heart rate, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.
Inflammation: A Link Between Hypertension and Atherosclerosis
Current Hypertension Reviews Context-Dependency of Relations Between Cardiovascular Phenotypes and Genes Involved in Sodium Homeostasis: Findings from the European Project on Genes in Hypertension
Current Hypertension Reviews β-Adrenomimetic Actions in the Hypotension and Vasodilatation Induced by a Chromatographic Active Fraction from Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) in Mammals
Current Bioactive Compounds Endothelin and Oxidative Stress in the Vascular System
Current Vascular Pharmacology Clinical and Prognostic Implications of Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in COPD
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Drugs Affecting Blood Pressure Variability: An Update
Current Pharmaceutical Design Climate Changes and Human Health: A Review of the Effect of Environmental Stressors on Cardiovascular Diseases Across Epidemiology and Biological Mechanisms
Current Pharmaceutical Design Potential Contribution of Action of Renin Angiotensin System to Bone Metabolism
Current Hypertension Reviews Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment
Current Hypertension Reviews Early Functional and Structural Microvascular Changes in Hypertension Related to Aging
Current Hypertension Reviews The Effects of Angiotensin II Signaling Blockade on Platelet Activity in Subjects with Hypertension
Current Hypertension Reviews Vitamin D in Atherosclerosis, Vascular Disease, and Endothelial Function
Current Drug Targets Diltiazem Analogues: The Last Ten Years on Structure Activity Relationships
Current Medicinal Chemistry Melatonin, a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Smooth Muscle-Related Pathological Conditions and Aging
Current Medicinal Chemistry Cardioprotective effects of Aronia melanocarpa anthocynanins. From laboratory experiments to clinical practice.
Current Pharmaceutical Design Clonidine in Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care Unit: More Than An Anti-Hypertensive Drug
Current Drug Targets Synthesis and Endothelin Receptors Binding Affinity of New 1,3,5- Substituted Pyrrole-2-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Medicinal Chemistry Urotensin-II Receptor: A Double Identity Receptor Involved in Vasoconstriction and in the Development of Digestive Tract Cancers and other Tumors
Current Cancer Drug Targets Mucoadhesive Microspheres Containing Anti-Hypertensive Agent: Formulation and Characterization
Current Drug Delivery Regressing Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: The Role of Telmisartan and Other ARBs
Current Hypertension Reviews