Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by various clinical manifestations and immunologic abnormalities. Cardiovascular and respiratory system involvement are increasingly recognized as critical for patients’ prognosis. In this review, current knowledge concerning diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of the cardiac and pulmonary lupus manifestations are discussed.
Method: Review of the literature.
Results: Although pericarditis is the most frequent heart manifestation in the context of lupus, valvular disease and less often myocarditis may be detected. In the latter, treatment should be prompt and aggressive to prevent chronic sequelae like congestive heart failure. Later on disease course, accelerated atherosclerosis is considered as one of the most important co-morbidities of SLE with cardiovascular events being one of the leading causes of death at relatively young ages. Stratification of the patients at risk and stringent management of the traditional risk factors are warranted.
Respiratory system involvement affects all anatomic structures of the lungs, pleura and pulmonary vasculature while its severity ranges from asymptomatic pleural disease to acute respiratory failure. The most common features include pleuritis, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary embolism on the background of antiphospholipid syndrome. Less usual complications include lupus pneumonitis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, shrinking lung syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Conclusion: There are no specific guidelines for the management of these manifestations and therapeutic approach remains empiric.
Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, cardiovascular, pulmonary manifestations, viral, tuberculosis, uremic.
Maternal Nutrition and Predisposition to Later Kidney Disease
Current Drug Targets Transdermal Therapeutic System of Enalapril Maleate Using Piperidine as Penetration Enhancer
Current Drug Delivery Recommendations for the Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with DM: Critical Evaluation Based on Clinical Trials
Current Clinical Pharmacology Aqueous Extract of Arbutus unedo Inhibits STAT1 Activation in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MDA-MB-231 and Human Fibroblasts Through SHP2 Activation
Medicinal Chemistry Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension, Novel Predisposing Factors, Unsuspected Mechanisms
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Anti-hyperglycemic Properties of a Purified Proteinaceous Protease Inhibitor from Macrotyloma Uniflorum Seeds
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Editorial from Editor-in-Chief (Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension: Are We Getting Closer to the Answer?)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Therapeutic Properties of Mushrooms in Managing Adverse Effects in the Metabolic Syndrome
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Targeting the Liver in the Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Animal Models
Current Pharmaceutical Design Renal Artery Stenting: Efficacy and Complications
Current Hypertension Reviews Wide Pulse Pressure in the Elderly
Current Cardiology Reviews Chloride Channels − New Targets for the Prevention of Stroke
Current Vascular Pharmacology Mechanical Ventilation of the Neonate: Principles and Strategies
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Introduction from the Guest Editor: The Many Facets of Heme Oxygenase
Current Neurovascular Research Update on Medical and Surgical Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment
Current Hypertension Reviews The Effect of Modified-Release Ketoconazole on Insulin Resistance in Patients with Severe Metabolic Syndrome
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Under Re-organization) Computer Aided Systems for Diabetic Retinopathy Detection Using Digital Fundus Images: A Survey
Current Medical Imaging Capsaicin Sensitive-Sensory Nerves and Blood Pressure Regulation
Current Medicinal Chemistry - Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents Biological Activities and Synthetic Approaches of Dihydropyrimidinones and Thiones - An Updated Review
Current Bioactive Compounds