Brain ischemia-reperfusion injury is a complex pathological condition that involves a cascade of events like excitotoxicity, peri-infarct depolarization, oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic degeneration. Since the past decades, researchers have provided significant information about the therapeutic potential and possible mechanism of action of plant extracts and derived chemicals to target multiple pathways of the ischemic cascade. Here, we summarized experimental, clinical and epidemiological therapeutic interventions of plants extracts and phytochemicals against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. Whether oxidative stress is the cause or consequence of brain ischemia is open for debate but details about oxidative burden and inflammation following brain ischemia are also described. Furthermore, the antioxidant mechanism of these extracts/ phytochemicals was reviewed. Although these plant extracts and phytochemicals showed the ability to act on the multiple steps of the ischemic cascade in in vitro and in vivo models of brain ischemia, further investigations are needed for their validation and for the development of new drugs.
Keywords: Brain ischemia/reperfusion, traditional medicine, ethnopharmacology, drug targets and neuroprotection.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Is ACE Inhibitor Safe for Heart Surgery?
Current Enzyme Inhibition Regulation of the Neuronal Fate by ΔFosB and its Downstream Target, Galectin-1
Current Drug Targets Gene-modified Mesenchymal Stem Cell–based Therapy in Renal Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury
Current Gene Therapy Pexelizumab and its Role in the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction and in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) A Lipid Anchor Improves the Protective Effect of Ectoine in Inflammation
Current Medicinal Chemistry Sodium Proton Exchanger Inhibitor in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in the Heart Surgery: Controversy in Clinical Application
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery Screening Methods for Antioxidants-A Review
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry The Role of Thiols in Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Current Pharmaceutical Design Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular Disease
Current Cardiology Reviews Cardiac Metabolism in Myocardial Ischemia
Current Pharmaceutical Design The Role of PDE5-Inhibitors in Cardiopulmonary Disorders: From Basic Evidence to Clinical Development
Current Medicinal Chemistry Resveratrol: A Therapeutic Promise for Cardiovascular Diseases
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Comprehensive Review on Custodiol-N (HTK-N) and its Molecular Side of Action for Organ Preservation
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology The Contribution of Mannose Binding Lectin to Reperfusion Injury after Ischemic Stroke
Current Neurovascular Research Cardioprotection with Sildenafil: Implications for Clinical Practice
Current Medicinal Chemistry Cardioprotective Utility of Urocortin in Myocardial Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury: Where do We Stand?
Current Molecular Pharmacology Proteasomes as Drug Targets
Current Drug Targets Heat Shock Proteins - Two Sides of a Coin
Current Cardiology Reviews Tissue Protective and Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Suramin: New Uses of an Old Drug
Current Clinical Pharmacology Protective Effect of Natural Antioxidants on Heart Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology