Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
Keywords: Circadian, Rhythms, Metabolism, Autonomic Nervous System, Hypothalamus, Liver
Phyto-glycosides as Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Diabetes
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target for Metabolic Disorders
Current Medicinal Chemistry Is Relief from Diabetes Just a Breath Away … ?
Current Drug Delivery NF-κB Inhibition Resolves Cognitive Deficits in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through CREB and Glutamate/GABA Neurotransmitters Pathway
Current Neurovascular Research Structure-Based Approaches in the Design of GSK-3 Selective Inhibitors
Current Protein & Peptide Science Gene-Activation Mechanisms in the Regression of Atherosclerosis, Elimination of Diabetes Type 2, and Prevention of Dementia
Current Molecular Medicine Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Associated with Low-Dose Quetiapine Treatment in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder
Current Drug Safety Alogliptin; A Review of a New Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Alzheimer Disease and Diabetes Mellitus: Do They have Anything in Common?
Current Alzheimer Research The Association of Folic Acid Deficiency and Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Dyslipidemia, Hypertension and Diabetes Metaflammation: A Unique Mechanism for 3 Risk Factors
Current Hypertension Reviews Natural Approaches in Diabetes Management: A Review of Diet, Exercise, and Natural Products
Current Pharmaceutical Design Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Synthetic Analogs: New Therapeutic Agents for Use in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Current Medicinal Chemistry New-onset Diabetes Mellitus: Predictive Factors and Impact on the Outcome of Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation
Current Diabetes Reviews Neutrophil Cell Count is Related to Hypertension in Workers: A Cross- Sectional Study
Vascular Disease Prevention Effects of Mindfulness on Diabetes Mellitus: Rationale and Overview
Current Diabetes Reviews Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Features Leading to Therapeutic Strategies
Vascular Disease Prevention Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-sectional Study
Current Hypertension Reviews Organoselenium Small Molecules and Chromium(III) Complexes for Intervention in Chronic Low-grade Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Pharmacology and Chemistry of Diabetes mellitus and Antidiabetic Drugs: A Critical Review
Current Medicinal Chemistry