Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main object of morbidity and death in the world. There are different triggers of CVD, but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most usual. CVD risk factors are used as prognosticators of disease process, while the biomarkers that envisage cardiovascular risk have an important biological basis. The integration of CVD risk factors and new biomarkers can improve CVD risk stratification and disease management. The identification of microparticles (MPs) in body fluids has opened new perspectives in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of CVD pathogenesis. MPs are submicron vesicles released from a diversity of cell types with pleiotropic biological effects on signaling among cells. They are correlated with disease state and play a major role in atherosclerosis associated with inflammation, thrombosis as well as in CVD development and progression. This review reveals many sides of MPs as risk factors, biomarkers, novel forms of intercellular communication, non-invasive potential diagnostic tools and discusses their positive and negative impact on CVD.
Keywords: Biomarkers, cardiovascular disease, diagnostic tools, microparticles.