Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of mortality or disabled quality of life for people over the world. The necessity of neovascularization is essential for re-establishing the tissue functions after a major lesion that occurs in patients with cardiovascular disorders, such as ischemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and burn wounds. This review focuses on the recent data regarding the polymers and scaffolds that are used for improving neovascularization with emphasis on the biocompatibility and mechanisms involved in stem cells proliferation, migration, adherence, differentiation and organization in vascular networks. The newly emerging techniques used in conjugation of synthetic polymers with polysaccharides or proteins attempt to improve the biocompatibility of scaffolds, but the complex structures of blood vessels make their construction to remain a major challenge for the vascular tissue engineering.
Keywords: Bioprinter, natural polymers, neovascularization, stem cells, synthetic polymers.