Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer’ s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders.
Keywords: Alzheimer´ s disease, cognitive impairment, dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, genetic markers, Lewy body disease, neurocognitive disorder, Parkinson´s disease, vascular disease.
New Insights into Biological Markers of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Spectrum
Current Medicinal Chemistry Machine Learning and Molecular Dynamics Based Insights into Mode of Actions of Insulin Degrading Enzyme Modulators
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor as a Molecular Target for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Hyperphosphorylation of Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer Disease
Current Medicinal Chemistry Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis in Alzheimer’s Disease
Current Alzheimer Research Predicted fold for the ABri Amyloid Subunit: A Model for Amyloidogenesis in Familial British Dementia.
Protein & Peptide Letters Current Advances on Different Kinases Involved in Tau Phosphorylation, and Implications in Alzheimers Disease and Tauopathies
Current Alzheimer Research The Overlapping Syndromes of the Pick Complex
Current Alzheimer Research Vascular Pharmacotherapy and Dementia
Current Vascular Pharmacology Differential Regulation of Neurotoxin in HIV Clades: Role of Cocaine and Methamphetamine
Current HIV Research Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk: Where are we Now?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Blood-Based Biomarkers of Alzheimer´s Disease: Diagnostic Algorithms and New Technologies
Current Alzheimer Research SV40 and HIV Sequences in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with AIDS Dementia Complex
Current HIV Research Diabetes Mellitus to Neurodegenerative Disorders: Is Oxidative Stress Fueling the Flame?
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Predementia and Dementia Syndromes: Possible Role of Lipoprotein Metabolism
Vascular Disease Prevention Brain Inflammation is a Common Feature of HIV-Infected Patients without HIV Encephalitis or Productive Brain Infection
Current HIV Research Genetic Variations in CHRNA7 or CHRFAM7 and Susceptibility to Dementia
Current Drug Targets Patient Variables Associated with the Assignment of a Formal Dementia Diagnosis to Positively Screened Primary Care Patients
Current Alzheimer Research Environmental Enrichment as a Positive Behavioral Intervention Across the Lifespan
Current Neuropharmacology Are Cerebrovascular White Matter Lesions an Early Sign of Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia?
Vascular Disease Prevention