The pharmacological treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy overlaps with the treatment of heart failure. The primary objective of this treatment is to slow the progression of disease and improve quality and length of life. All patients, including those with asymptomatic dysfunction of the left ventricle, ought to receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, (in the case of intolerance, angiotensin receptor blockers), and beta blockers. The results of studies involving aliskiren have been, so far, disappointing. In symptomatic heart failure NYHA II-IV diuretics and mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists should be added to treatment. Digoxin is recommended in the event of atrial fibrillation, and otherwise only in the event of NYHA III and IV. Ivabradine is recommended for patients with sinus rhythm and pulse rate of > 70/min.
In decompensation of heart failure, dobutamine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors or levosimendan are administered over the short-term. Of the recent treatment options, the vasopressin blocker and adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (rolofylline) were disappointing. One treatment with potential for the future is omecamtiv mecarbil, a heart myosin activator.
Keywords: Dilated cardiomyopathy, pharmacological treatment, acute decompensation.
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