Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers a 4.5% risk of stroke per year. The risk of stroke increases with various risk factors and until recently, warfarin has been the gold standard of thromboembolism prophylaxis in AF for many years. The dosage of warfarin requires regular adjustment dependent on the INR, to keep within a narrow therapeutic range of 2.0- 3.0.
The INR can be altered by concomitant drugs, foods and alcohol and requires inconvenient blood monitoring. Underanticoagulation places patients at risk of stroke, whilst over-anticoagulation confers significant bleeding risk. Consequently approximately half who would benefit from oral anticoagulation do not have it prescribed.
Novel oral anticoagulants with predictable pharmacokinetics and improved efficacy and safety profiles are currently being developed for stroke prevention in AF. Three novel oral anticoagulants have just completed Phase III trials for stroke prevention, all with impressive results; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran and the oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban.
Keywords: Apixaban, atrial fibrillation, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, stroke prevention, warfarin.
A New Metabotropic Role for L-type Ca2+ Channels in Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction
Current Vascular Pharmacology UPLC-MS for Identification of Quercetin Derivatives in Cuphea glutinosa Cham. & Schltdl (Lythraceae) and Evaluation of Antifungal Potential
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis Non-Steroidal LXR Agonists; An Emerging Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Atherosclerosis
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Antioxidant Treatment and Endothelial Dysfunction: Is it Time for Flavonoids?
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Role of Genetic Factors in Statins Side-Effects
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Influence of a High-Fat Diet on Cardiac iNOS in Female Rats
Current Vascular Pharmacology Cyclophilin A: A Predictive Biomarker of Carotid Stenosis in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke
Current Neurovascular Research Editorial (Thematic Issue: Critical Appraisal of Ischemic Stroke Pathophysiology: Road to Cerebral Resuscitation? Part I)
Current Medicinal Chemistry Editorial: Can Statins Mitigate the Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Smoking?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Renin Angiotensin System Gene Polymorphisms in Response to Antihypertensive Drugs and Visit-To-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Essential Hypertensive Patients
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine (Formerly Current Pharmacogenomics) The Double Roles of the Prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> EP2 Receptor in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Current Drug Targets Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA): Is There a Role for the Prevention and Therapy Using Antioxidants?
Current Drug Targets Combining Bevacizumab with Radiation or Chemoradiation for Solid Tumors: A Review of the Scientific Rationale, and Clinical Trials
Current Angiogenesis (Discontinued) Biogenic Peptides and Their Potential Use
Current Pharmaceutical Design The Role of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Statins in Endothelial Function: A Review
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry A Critical Approach of Guideline Therapeutic Recommendations for NAFLD
Current Vascular Pharmacology State of the Heart: CMR in Coronary Artery Disease
Current Medical Imaging Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Protects SH-SY5Y Cells from OGD/RInduced Injury
Current Molecular Medicine The Therapeutic Potential of PhospholipaseA2 Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Role of Statins in Peri-Operative Medicine
Current Drug Targets