Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths. Also, cardiovascular risk factors start the atherosclerotic process, which leads to cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, periodontal disease can also be considered another cardiovascular risk factor. It involves inflammatory, immunological and humoral activities, which induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the destruction of the epithelium. This allows the entry of endotoxins and exotoxins in the bloodstream, which may contribute to atherogenesis and thromboembolic events. There is also direct invasion of the vessel wall by oral pathogens, triggering an inflammatory response that produces endothelial dysfunction. In hypertension, changes in microcirculation can cause ischemia in the periodontium, which favors periodontal disease. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction promotes the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and the development of lesions in target organs. Periodontitis has also been associated with insulin resistance and a higher risk for the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by oxidative stress. This seems to act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of the metabolic syndrome (including hypertension) and periodontitis. This article will discuss clinical and experimental evidence, as well as possible pathophysiologic mechanisms and links involved in the relationship among periodontal disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Atherogenesis, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, periodontal disease, periodontitis.
Gene Delivery for Periodontal Tissue Engineering: Current Knowledge – Future Possibilities
Current Gene Therapy Antibiotic or Anti-inflammatory Agent? The Double-Edged Sword of Tetracyclines
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Taurine, Bone Growth and Bone Development
Current Nutrition & Food Science Influence of Polymorphic N-Acetyltransferases on Non-Malignant Spontaneous Disorders and on Response to Drugs
Current Drug Metabolism “Potential natural antioxidants: adjuvant effect of green tea polyphenols in periodontal infections”
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Innocent Bystanders or Partners in Crime?
Current Pharmaceutical Design Peptides in Oral Diseases
Current Pharmaceutical Design Periodontal Regenerative Materials and Their Applications: Goodness of Fit?
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Under Re-organization) Quality by Design and Evaluation of Crosslinked Chitosan Microspheres for the Controlled Delivery of Doxycycline Hyclate
Drug Delivery Letters Effects of Micro RNAs and their Targets in Periodontal Diseases
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Chemical Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases for Periodontal Treatment
Clinical Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Drugs (Discontinued) In Vivo Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT) and Change Mediated Antigen Technology (CMAT)
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets ‘Osteoimmunology' Offers New Perspectives for the Treatment of Pathological Bone Loss
Current Pharmaceutical Design Growth Factor Delivery to Re-Engineer Periodontal Tissues
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Smoking and Atherosclerosis: Mechanisms of Disease and New Therapeutic Approaches
Current Medicinal Chemistry Periodontal Regenerative Materials and Their Applications: Mechanisms of Action
Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine (Discontinued) Dichotomous Life of DNA Binding High Mobility Group Box1 Protein in Human Health and Disease
Current Protein & Peptide Science Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: New Challenges in the Era of Post Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors
Current Pharmaceutical Design Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Spray-Dried Microparticles for the Delivery of Clindamycin Phosphate to Periodontal Pockets
Current Drug Delivery Hormone Mediation of Immune Responses in the Progression of Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontal Diseases
Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders