Congestive heart failure can become a debilitating, terminal illness in many patients despite maximal medical therapy. Patients with advanced heart failure have persistence of severe clinical symptoms limiting their daily life, marked left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and poor exercise capacity. Although individual disease trajectory in these patients can be difficult to predict, overall mortality remains high despite recent advances in medical and surgical therapy. Palliative care should be considered for patients with high mortality estimates, especially those patients with a one-year survival estimate of less than 25% who are not candidates for cardiac transplantation or destination mechanical support. Palliative models for heart failure management shift the focus of care from curing this debilitating disease to managing symptoms and incorporating treatment based on patient quality of life and survival goals. This article discusses strategies for identifying and treating reversible causes of heart failure, for treating rhythm disturbances, and for maintaining hemodynamic stability. Confounding medical and psychological problems affecting overall patient energy levels and well-being are reviewed. Finally, various venues and sites of care are discussed.
Keywords: palliative care, congestive heart failure, hospice
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Current State of Knowledge, New Developments and Future Directions
Current Cardiology Reviews Beta-Blockers in the Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Which is the Best?
Current Pharmaceutical Design Management of Hypertension-Journey from Single Drug Therapy to Multitargeted Ligand Therapy: A Clinical Overview
Current Clinical Pharmacology Role of Copper in Angiogenesis and Its Medicinal Implications
Current Medicinal Chemistry The Role of Endothelin-1 in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Pathogenesis and Endothelin-1 Antagonists
Current Medicinal Chemistry Innate Immunity and the Heart
Current Pharmaceutical Design Oxidative Stress and Transforming Growth Factor-β<sub>1</sub>-induced Cardiac Fibrosis
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Pleiotropic Effects of Statin in Therapy in Heart Failure: A Review
Current Vascular Pharmacology The Influence of Sex Hormones on Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity: Possible Vasodilator Therapies for the Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension
Current Vascular Pharmacology Oxidative Stress on Progenitor and Stem Cells in Cardiovascular Diseases
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology GRK2 at the Control Shaft of Cellular Metabolism
Current Pharmaceutical Design ACE2; an ACE up the Sleeve?
Current Enzyme Inhibition Tumor Necrosis Factor Blocking Therapy and Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders: A Systematic Review
Current Medicinal Chemistry Circulating Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Heart Failure
Current Medicinal Chemistry Pharmacologic Therapy in Growth Hormone Disorders and the Heart
Current Medicinal Chemistry Biomarkers in Cardiomyopathies and Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Endothelin Receptor Antagonists: A New Therapeutic Option for Improving the Outcome after Solid Organ Transplantation?
Current Vascular Pharmacology The Role of Endothelin System in Cardiovascular Disease and the Potential Therapeutic Perspectives of its Inhibition
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Carvedilol: Just Another Beta-Blocker or a Powerful Cardioprotector?
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Hypertensive Heart Disease and the Role of Aldosterone Antagonists
Current Hypertension Reviews