Insulin resistance is defined as a preliminary step of type 2 diabetes mellitus with decreased insulin action evoked by continuous postprandial hyperglycemia, which is provoked by high fat and calories dieting, a lack of physical activity and obesity. In the early phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients have a hyperinsulinemia to compensate deficient insulin action by increased secretion from the pancreas to maintain euglycemia. Then, pancreatic β cells progressively decrease secretion function, resulting in the development of diabetes mellitus with decreased serum insulin levels. Accumulating evidences show that insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus have still unknown. Therefore, to elucidate the mechanisms of insulin resistance-induced hypertension, we investigated that the effects of hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia on vascular responses mediated by perivascular nerves including sympathetic adrenergic nerves and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves (CGRPergic nerves). In this article, we show evidence that insulin resistance-induced hypertension could be resulted from increased density and function of sympathetic nerve, and decreased density and function of CGRPergic nerves. Furthermore, our findings provide a new insight into the research of therapeutic drugs for insulin resistance- induced hypertension.
Keywords: Insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, perivascular CGRPergic nerves, perivascular sympathetic adrenergic nerves.
Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Among Patients Exposed to the Combination of Pravastatin and Paroxetine
Current Drug Safety Diabetes Mellitus to Neurodegenerative Disorders: Is Oxidative Stress Fueling the Flame?
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Energy Metabolism in the Normal and in the Diabetic Heart
Current Pharmaceutical Design Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Other Coronary Risk Factors in Atherosclerosis: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Preventive Measures
Current Pharmaceutical Design Commentary: Diagnostic Validity and Clinical Utility of HbA1c Tests for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Diabetes Reviews Vitamin D Replacement and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Diabetes Reviews Melatonin and Oxidative Stress in the Diabetic State: Clinical Implications and Potential Therapeutic Applications
Current Medicinal Chemistry Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease (NAFPD): A Silent Spectator or the Fifth Component of Metabolic Syndrome? A Literature Review
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Mastering the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 in Childhood and Adolescence
Current Pediatric Reviews The Effect of Risk Factor Changes on Peripheral Arterial Disease and Cardiovascular Risk
Current Drug Targets - Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Homology-Based Design for Selective GSK-3 Peptide Inhibitors: Patent Applications and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Signal Transduction Therapy Advances in Insulin Sensitizers
Current Medicinal Chemistry Protective Role of Diabetes Mellitus on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Pathogenesis: Myth or Reality?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Features Leading to Therapeutic Strategies
Vascular Disease Prevention Strategies for Diabetes Prevention Before and After Pregnancy in Women with GDM
Current Diabetes Reviews Management of Hyperglycemia in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Under Re-organization) Lipoprotein (a) and Cardiovascular Risk: The Show Must go on
Current Medicinal Chemistry Recent Advances on Stearoyl-Coa Desaturase Regulation in Fatty Liver Diseases
Current Drug Metabolism Goto-kakizaki Rats: Its Suitability as Non-obese Diabetic Animal Model for Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Diabetes Reviews Cardiac Mitochondrial Alterations Observed in Hyperglycaemic Rats - What Can We Learn From Cell Biology?
Current Diabetes Reviews