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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

A Review of the Cardiovascular and Anti-Atherogenic Effects of Ghrelin

Author(s): Manfredi Rizzo, Ali A. Rizvi, Emina Sudar, Sanja Soskic, Milan Obradovic, Giuseppe Montalto, Mohamed Boutjdir, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis and Esma R. Isenovic

Volume 19 , Issue 27 , 2013

Page: [4953 - 4963] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1381612811319270018

Price: $58


Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the stomach that has widespread tissue distribution and diverse hormonal, metabolic and cardiovascular activities. The circulating ghrelin concentration increases during fasting and decreases after food intake. Ghrelin secretion may thus be initiated by food intake and is possibly controlled by nutritional factors. Lean subjects have increased levels of circulating ghrelin compared with obese subjects. Recent reports show that low plasma ghrelin is associated with elevated fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Factors involved in the regulation of ghrelin secretion have not yet been defined; however, it is assumed that blood glucose levels represent a significant regulator. Recent evidence indicates that ghrelin can increase myocardial contractility, enhance vasodilatation, and has protective effect from myocardial damage. It has been shown that ghrelin may improve cardiac function through growth hormone (GH)-dependent mechanisms but there is also evidence to suggest that ghrelin's cardioprotective activity is independent of GH. Recent data demonstrate that ghrelin can influence key events in atherogenesis. Thus, ghrelin may be a new target for the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we consider the current literature focusing on ghrelin as a potential antiatherogenic agent in the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions.

Keywords: Ghrelin, cardiovascular system, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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