Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic glycoprotein belonging to a family of regulated secretory proteins stored in the dense core granules of many neuroendocrine cells and neurons. This protein is produced, in certain conditions also by cardiomyocytes, keratinocytes and granulocytes. Upon secretion CgA is released in the extracellular environment and then in circulation. Increased levels of circulating CgA have been detected in patients with cancer, heart failure, hypertension, atrophic gastritis, renal failure, giant cell artheritis, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis and other inflammatory diseases. Endothelial cells, either those located in the close proximity of secretory cells or in distant tissues, may be exposed, therefore, to variable levels of CgA. In this review we discuss recent findings that implicate CgA and its fragments as a modulators of the physiology of endothelial cells in normal and in pathological conditions. In particular, we review data that suggest that CgA and its N-terminal fragment, called vasostatin-1, are important modulators of the endothelial barrier function and potent inhibitors of the endothelial cell activation caused by inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines, with potential implications in angiogenesis, inflammation and cancer.
Keywords: Chromogranin A, vasostatin-1, TNF, NGR-TNF, VEGF, endothelial cell, vascular leakage, angiogenesis, VE-cadherin, endothelial barrier function, cancer, neuroendocrine tumors.
Is the Treatment with Biological or Non-biological DMARDS a Modifier of Periodontal Condition in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Current Rheumatology Reviews Impact of Sphingosine Kinase on Inflammatory Pathways in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued) Mechanisms Leading to Autoantibody Production: Link Between Inflammation and Autoimmunity
Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy Psychological Factors Associated with Response to Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Current Pharmaceutical Design Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Challenge in Coming Era
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry Targeting JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway in Inflammatory Diseases
Current Signal Transduction Therapy The Protective Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Immune-mediated Inflammatory Responses
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets The Biology of p38 Kinase: A Central Role in Inflammation
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Biologics and the Cardiovascular System: A Double-Edged Sword
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Cardiovascular Disease in the Rheumatic Diseases: How Systemic Inflammation May Contribute to Atherogenesis
Current Rheumatology Reviews Editorial (Thematic Issue: Optimizing Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Current Pharmaceutical Design Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors
Current Cardiology Reviews Design and Characterization of Microcrystals for Enhanced Dissolution Rate of Celecoxib
Current Drug Discovery Technologies Overview of the Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Current Pharmaceutical Design Bench to Bedside of CTLA-4: A Novel Immuno-Therapeutic Agent for Inflammatory Disorders
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of Oral N-Acetyl Cysteine on Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Current Rheumatology Reviews Serological Electrodetection of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Mimetic Peptide
Protein & Peptide Letters The Contribution of Adipose Tissue and Adipokines to Inflammation in Joint Diseases
Current Medicinal Chemistry The Design and Synthesis of Aryl Hydroxamic Acid Inhibitors of MMPs and TACE
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Osseotypes and Spondyloarthropathy Exposed
Current Rheumatology Reviews