Calcium ion is an essential structural component of the skeleton. There is growing evidence for the importance of nutrition in the maintenance of bones and joints health. Nutritional imbalance combined with endocrine abnormalities may be involved in osteoporosis. For example, essential fatty acids and their metabolites were reported to have beneficial action in osteoporosis. The mechanism by which fatty acids prevent osteoporosis may involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to have a major role in osteoporosis through induction of oxidative stress which had adverse effects on the skeleton. Other risk factors for osteoporosis, such as smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are also associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals levels. When bone fracture occurs, a remarkable yield of free radicals is generated by the damaged tissues. However, controlled production of free radicals by normally functioning osteoclasts could accelerate destruction of calcified tissues and assist bone remodeling. Enhanced osteoclastic activity observed in bone disorders may have been responsible for increased production of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in the form of superoxide, which is evident by increased levels of serum malondialdehyde [MDA] levels. One of the most damaging effects of ROS is lipid peroxidation, the end product of which is MDA which also served as a measure of osteoclastic activity. Inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, was found to increase superoxide production by the osteoclasts which represented by increased levels of MDA. Therefore, oxidative stress is an important mediator of bone loss since deficiency of antioxidant vitamins has been found to be more common in the elderly osteoporotic patients. It is concluded from this review that increased free radical production overwhelms the natural antioxidants defense mechanisms, subjecting individuals to hyperoxidant stress and thus leading to osteoporosis. In addition, administration of antioxidants might protect bones from osteoporosis and also might help in the acceleration of healing of fractured bones.
Keywords: parathyroid hormone, Estrogen, L-NG-monomethyl arginine, Calcitonin, Bone Fractures
Pharmacology and Chemistry of Diabetes mellitus and Antidiabetic Drugs: A Critical Review
Current Medicinal Chemistry Human Tissue Kallikrein: A New Bullet for the Treatment of Ischemia
Current Pharmaceutical Design Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme: A Pathogenetic Role in Diabetic Renal Damage?
Current Diabetes Reviews Default Mode Network Connectivity and Related White Matter Disruption in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Concurrent with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment
Current Alzheimer Research Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function: Therapeutic Interventions
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Fatty Acids: Friends or Foe? Relation Between Dietary Fat and Insulin Sensitivity
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Under Re-organization) Eye Disorders in Diabetes: Potential Drug Targets
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets The Significance of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Body Fluids as a Marker Related to Diseased Conditions
Current Medicinal Chemistry Hypothalamic AMP-activated Protein Kinase as a Regulator of Food Intake and Energy Balance
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Independent Relationship between Serum Osteocalcin and Uric Acid in a Cohort of Apparently Healthy Obese Subjects
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Diabetes Therapy: Novel Patents Targeting the Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion
Recent Patents on DNA & Gene Sequences (DIscontinued) Managing Erectile Dysfunction in Heart Failure
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Therapeutic Approach on AGE-RAGE Interaction and Its Function in Diabetic Inflammation Process
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Under Re-organization) PPAR Agonists, Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk
Current Pharmaceutical Design Modulation of Nitric Oxide Pathway by Multiligands/RAGE Axis: A Crossing Point on the Road to Microvascular Complication in Diabetes
Current Enzyme Inhibition Drug Discovery and Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Modern-Integrative Medicinal Approach
Current Drug Discovery Technologies Challenges Related to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Current Drug Metabolism An Unusual Presentation of a Rare Scleroderma Mimic: What is Behind the Scenes?
Current Rheumatology Reviews Modulatory Factors Responsible for Neoangiogenesis in Young Patients with Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Under Re-organization) Role of Nanotechnology in Diabetic Management
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology