Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a complex multisystem disease characterized by vascular involvement and generalized disturbance of the microcirculation. Pulmonary vascular disease leads to systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (SScPAH). SScPAH is a devastating complication with a considerable impact on prognosis, being a common cause of disease-related death. The ability to detect this process at an early stage by simple means would be of great value, since effective treatment is now available. There is increasing evidence that several biomarkers increase in proportion to the extent of right ventricular dysfunction and correlate with hemodynamic, echocardiographic and functional measurements of pulmonary vascular disease. Biomarkers may be used to identify high-risk patients for more invasive procedures, provide prognostic information, and guide vasodilator therapy. In this article, we review potential biomarkers in SScPAH as tools for screening, diagnostic evaluation, risk stratification, prediction of disease severity and indicators of treatment efficacy.
Keywords: Systemic sclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, natriuretic peptides, asymmetric dimethylarginine, biomarkers, nitric oxide
Brain Excitatory/Inhibitory Circuits Cross-Talking with Chromogranin A During Hypertensive and Hibernating States
Current Medicinal Chemistry Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Forms of Primary Aldosteronism
Current Hypertension Reviews A Clinician’s Guide to Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Current Psychiatry Reviews Issues and Progress in Isolation of Susceptibility Genes of Essential Hypertension
Current Hypertension Reviews Insulin Resistance-Induced Hypertension and a Role of Perivascular CGRPergic Nerves
Current Protein & Peptide Science Role of Angiotensin-1-Receptor Blockers In Cardiorenal Disease
Current Drug Therapy Pleiotropic Effects of ARB on Dyslipidemia
Current Vascular Pharmacology Cardioprotection Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Chromogranin ADerived Peptides
Current Medicinal Chemistry Blockade of Apoptosis by ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Current Pharmaceutical Design Nothing But Stress – The Interplay of Angiotensin II, Inflammation, Hypertension and Atherosclerosis: Implications for Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability
Vascular Disease Prevention Non-pharmacological Modulation of the Autonomic Nervous System for Heart Failure Treatment: Where do We Stand?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Antihypertensive Treatment with Beta-Blockers in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Review
Current Diabetes Reviews Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Antihypertensive Drugs: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice
Current Hypertension Reviews Leptin and the Cardiovascular System: A Review
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Intra - and Intercellular Calcium Handling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Medicinal Chemistry Novel Hypotensive Agents from Verbesina Caracasana: Structure, Synthesis and Pharmacology
Current Medicinal Chemistry PPARγ Agonists: Beneficial Effect on Blood Pressure Beyond Glycemic Control?
Current Hypertension Reviews Pharmacology of L-type Calcium Channels: Novel Drugs for Old Targets?
Current Molecular Pharmacology Smoking and Hypertension: Effects on Clinical, Biochemical and Pathological Variables Due to Isolated or Combined Action on Cardiovascular System
Current Pharmaceutical Design Comparison between Two Calcium Antagonists: Blood Pressure Reduction and Renal Effects in Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Under Re-organization)