Introduction: This paper aims to summarize the scientific rationale and future perspectives in the development of effective matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) modulators in the management of patients with arterial and venous disease. Methods: Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched using the search terms ‘MMP’, ’matrix metalloproteinase’, ‘arterial disease’, ‘venous disease’, ‘aneurysm’, ‘vascular disease’, ‘atherosclerosis’ and ‘varicose veins’. Articles focussing on aneurysm disease, peripheral arterial disease, carotid stenosis and venous disorders were included. Results: Animal studies assessing MMP expression have demonstrated that MMP-2 and MMP-9 may contribute to arterial aneurysm formation and in atherosclerosis. Human studies and animal models have shown that MMP-3 and MMP-9 may have a protective role against plaque development and destabilization whereas MMP-12 might promote these changes. In venous disease, increased expression of MMP-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13 have been shown in human varicose veins. MMP- 2 and MMP-9 were also shown to be upregulated in experimentally induced venous hypertension and higher concentrations of MMP-2 in wound exudate and biopsies have been shown to correlate with impaired venous ulcer healing. The use of statins has become widespread in patients with arterial disease and MMP inhibition is likely to contribute to the mechanism of action. More selective MMP modulators are currently being developed, although clinical studies are currently lacking. Conclusions: MMPs have been directly implicated in the pathophysiology of many arterial and venous disorders and remain an important potential therapeutic target. Studies are needed to further develop and demonstrate the clinical benefits of MMP modulating agents.
Keywords: Matrix metalloproteinases, arterial disease, venous disease, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, chronic venous disease
Vascular Stents in the Management of Intracranial Aneurysms
Recent Patents on Medical Imaging (Discontinued) Endothelial Remodelling and Intracellular Calcium Machinery
Current Molecular Medicine Statins in Aortic Disease
Current Pharmaceutical Design Early Cerebral Infarction Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Frequency, Risk Factors, Patterns, and Prognosis
Current Neurovascular Research Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Leukemia and Sepsis
Vascular Disease Prevention Fenofibrate and Telmisartan in the Management of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Current Drug Targets Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA): Is There a Role for the Prevention and Therapy Using Antioxidants?
Current Drug Targets Mast Cell Chymase and Tryptase as Targets for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases
Current Pharmaceutical Design Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: What About Screening?
Current Pharmaceutical Design Intracranial Non-traumatic Aneurysms in Children and Adolescents
Current Pediatric Reviews Protective Role of Diabetes Mellitus on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Pathogenesis: Myth or Reality?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Cardiovascular Imaging in Thromboembolic Risk Stratification for Atrial Fibrillation: Recent Patents and Current Practice
Recent Patents on Medical Imaging (Discontinued) Pathogenic and Therapeutic Significance of Angiotensin II Type I Receptor in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Current Drug Targets An Update on the Role of the Quality of LDL in Cardiovascular Risk:The Contribution of the Universities of Palermo and Zurich
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Update on Sirolimus Drug-Eluting Stents
Current Pharmaceutical Design Systemic Inflammatory Response, Bacterial Translocation and Nitric Oxide Donors
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued) Ulnar Artery Thrombosis Due to Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) The Location of Vascular Flap is Related with Daily Activity Patterns in Non-traumatic Acute Aortic Syndrome in a Chinese Population
Current Signal Transduction Therapy Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Use in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH)
Current Pharmaceutical Design Molecular Genetics of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Therapeutic Implications
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine (Formerly Current Pharmacogenomics)