The heart is a major site of natriuretic peptides (NP). Atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) are predominantly produced by atria and ventricles. C-Natriuretic peptide (CNP) is also found in heart tissue. ANP and BNP are produced by cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Cardiac fibroblasts also secrete CNP. Three NP-receptors (NPR-A, NPRB, NPR-C) are expressed in heart atria and ventricles. ANP, BNP and CNP exert antihypertrophic actions in cardiomyocytes, suppress cardiac fibroblast growth and inhibit collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo infusion of ANP also reduces collagen deposition in the arterial wall of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Baseline plasma BNP is a sensitive predictor of morbidity and mortality in heart failure and changes in BNP over time are associated with corresponding changes in subsequent mortality and morbidity. Plasma BNP, and to a lesser extent ANP, is also a strong cardiovascular risk marker in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy without left ventricle dysfunction or overt renal disease. A potential role for genetic variants of the ANP gene in the modulation of the disease phenotype observed with some cardiovascular diseases is also reported. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition may also have inhibitory effects on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Keywords: natriuretic peptides, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, infarction, heart failure, neutral endopeptidase inhibition
Vitamin D Biology in Heart Failure: Molecular Mechanisms and Systematic Review
Current Drug Targets A New Approach for Treatment of Hypertension: Modifying D1 Dopamine Receptor Function
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Postprandial Glucose - A Potential Therapeutic Target to Reduce Cardiovascular Mortality
Current Vascular Pharmacology Pharmacological Potential of Exercise and RAS Vasoactive Peptides for Prevention of Diseases
Current Protein & Peptide Science Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Pregnancy
Current Pharmaceutical Design Human Liver Enzymes Responsible for Metabolic Elimination of Tyramine, a Vasopressor Agent from Daily Food
Drug Metabolism Letters Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy of Fasudil for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Influence of Hypertension, Alone and in Combination with Other Vascular Risk Factors on Cognition
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Glucocorticoids and the Cardiovascular System: State of the Art
Current Pharmaceutical Design Renin--Angiotensin System Gene Polymorphism and Regression of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertension
Current Pharmacogenomics Direct Renin Inhibition: Promising Treatment in Renoprotection?
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs in Diabetic Retinopathy
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Pulmonary Hypertension: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Treatment,and Dana Point World Symposium Highlights
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Virus Vasculopathy and Stroke: An Under-Recognized Cause and Treatment Target
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Impact of CYP2D6 Genetic Variation on the Response of the Cardiovascular Patient to Carvedilol and Metoprolol
Current Drug Metabolism Does HbA1cc Play a Role in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases?
Current Pharmaceutical Design Editorial (Thematic Issue: All Roads of Renal Hypertension Lead to or Come from CKD)
Current Hypertension Reviews Will Sodium Intake Reduction Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in the General Population? A Critical Review of Current Evidence
Current Hypertension Reviews Pulmonary Complications After Congenital Heart Surgery
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews The Emerging Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Vascular Homeostasis: Lessons from Recent Trials with Anti-VEGF Drugs
Current Vascular Pharmacology