Hypertension plays major causative roles in development of cardiac failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cardiac and renal involvements in hypertension and relevant pharmacological interventions have been extensively studied in our laboratories. Our findings demonstrated that aged spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) developed reduced coronary flow reserve, increased coronary vascular resistance and cardiac fibrosis, and impaired cardiac function. Moreover, aged SHR naturally developed glomerular hypertension and ischemia, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. These naturally-occurring cardiac and renal involvements in aged SHR are very similar to these target organ changes in essential hypertension. Furthermore, we have been able to reproduce similar derangements in younger adult SHR by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. These changes are identical to the pathophysiological alterations in heart and kidney found in old SHR as well as clinically. Antihypertensive therapeutic interventions provided cardiac and renal protection and, perhaps even prevention in the aged SHR and younger adult SHR with suppressed nitric oxide synthesis. Recent clinical trails have translated these pathophysiological observations demonstrating that angiotensin II inhibition affords remarkable cardiac and renal benefits to patients with essential hypertension. Thus, both the aged SHR as well as younger adult SHR with suppressed nitric oxide synthesis very closely mimic the cardiac and renal outcomes seen in patients with essential hypertension. They accordingly have become extremely useful experimental models of hypertensive heart disease and ESRD seen with severe nephrosclerosis. The latter hypertensive rat model with induced endothelial dysfunction is recommended enthusiastically for its foregoing as well as time-saving and economic values.
Keywords: Hypertension, cardiac failure, end-stage renal disease, experimental model
RAAS Inhibition and Renal Protection
Current Pharmaceutical Design Ethnicity and Drug Therapy for Hypertension
Current Pharmaceutical Design Onset of Hypertension in Leflunamide Treated Low Socioeconomic Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: An Unseen Iceberg
Current Rheumatology Reviews Hypertension: Basics Concepts and the Evolving Role of Novel Treatments
Current Hypertension Reviews Fitness or Fatness - the Debate Continues for the Role of Leptin in Obesity-Associated Heart Dysfunction
Current Diabetes Reviews Designing and Evaluating Health Systems Level Hypertension Control Interventions for African-Americans: Lessons from a Pooled Analysis of Three Cluster Randomized Trials
Current Hypertension Reviews Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Sleep Disordered Breathing - The Overlap Syndrome: An Evolving Clinical Phenotype
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews The Adult Patient with Eisenmenger Syndrome: A Medical Update after Dana Point Part II: Medical Treatment - Study Results
Current Cardiology Reviews Does Handle Region Peptide Provide Benefits in Chronic Kidney Disease?
Current Hypertension Reviews Preeclampsia as a Multifactorial Pregnancy Disorder: Clinical Symptoms,Diagnostic Tools and Research Strategies
Current Women`s Health Reviews Hyperuricemia: Is it a Risk Factor for Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Associated Cardiovascular Disorders?
Current Hypertension Reviews Treatment Considerations of Clinical Physician on Hypertension Management in Asia
Current Hypertension Reviews Adverse Effects of Tacrolimus in Renal Transplant Patients from Living Donors
Current Drug Safety Update on Pharmacologic Approaches to Prevent Thromboembolism in Atrial Fibrillation: Are Thrombin and Factor Xa Inhibitors the Ultimate Answer?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Betaxolol Hydrochloride Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery and their Anti-glaucoma Efficacy
Current Drug Delivery Transient Receptor Potential Channels, the Kidney and Hypertension
Current Hypertension Reviews Renalase is Removed by Kidneys and During Dialysis – Excess Related to CKD Complications?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Hypertension in Children with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Current Hypertension Reviews Urinary Albumin to Creatinine Ratio as Potential Biomarker for Cerebral Microvascular Disease
Current Neurovascular Research Antiangiogenic Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets