Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation and enrichment of inflammatory cells in the vessel wall. Acute inflammation can lead to damaged endothelium triggering the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation. Likewise, the clotting cascade may elicit an inflammatory response. The vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone, permeability, inflammation, thrombosis, and coagulation. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium can promote atherosclerotic disease processes. Prostanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin) have been established as inflammatory mediators in vascular endothelial function and there continues to be growing insights into their role in atherosclerotic disease. This review examines the role of prostanoids as paracrine inflammatory mediators of atherosclerotic vascular disease, highlighting the relevant physiology of eicosanoid production and endothelial dysfunction. We consider the role of prostanoids in systemic diseases associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatologic disorders, and dyslipidemia. We present emerging evidence that cardio-protective and lipid lowering medications, such as irbesartan and simvastatin may exert their effects via prostanoid mediated pathways. Both serum and urinary prostanoids may be utilized as diagnostic predictors of disease; for example 8-iso-PGF2α in the serum has recently been reported as an independent predictor of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. In addition, we discuss current recommendations on established therapeutic uses of prostanoids for atherosclerotic diseases, such as the use of PGE1 for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Finally, we investigate original therapeutic modalities of various prostanoids involved in the aforementioned diseases.
Keywords: Eicosanoid, prostaglandin, vascular disease, atherosclerosis
Phytochemicals as Prototypes for Pharmaceutical Leads Towards Drug Development Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Current Pharmaceutical Design Lipoproteins and Diabetic Microvascular Complications
Current Pharmaceutical Design Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperglycemia as a Trigger of Atherosclerosis
Current Diabetes Reviews Mediterranean Diet Rich in Olive Oil and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus
Current Pharmaceutical Design The Role of Oestrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ) in the Aetiology and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Diabetes Reviews Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Antagonists and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Pharmaceutical Design Therapeutic Approach on AGE-RAGE Interaction and Its Function in Diabetic Inflammation Process
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Under Re-organization) The Relationship Between Inflammation, Dyslipidemia and Physical Exercise: From the Epidemiological to Molecular Approach
Current Diabetes Reviews Targeting Regulatory T Cells in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Molecular Medicine Is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Predisposal Cause for Developing Hepatocellular Carcinoma?
Current Diabetes Reviews Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Genetics of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Current Medicinal Chemistry Identification of Novel Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Using <i>In Silico</i> Studies
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Alzheimer Disease and Diabetes Mellitus: Do They have Anything in Common?
Current Alzheimer Research Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Functional Foods of Plant Origin
Recent Patents on Biotechnology Recent Developments in the Design of Orally Bioavailable β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
Current Medicinal Chemistry A Systematic Review of Analytical Profiles of SGLT2 Inhibitors and their Combinations for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis Computational Identification of Inhibitors Against DPP-IV for Checking Type-2 Diabetes
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Radiological Presentation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Otherwise Non-Immunocompromised Patients: A Systematic Review
Current Medical Imaging Post-translational Modifications of Proteins: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes Related Complications