Purpose: The objective of the present study was to quantify the reported cardiovascular adverse reactions and adverse reactions to cardiovascular drugs to help to design and implement monitoring and prevention strategies.
Methods: The pharmacovigilance unit (PU) is a peripheral effector of National Pharmacovigilance Center and receives adverse drug reactions notifications from 10 teaching hospitals. Data on adverse reactions beginning in 2004 and notified to the PU were extracted from the database. Cardiovascular adverse drug reactions and adverse reactions to cardiovascular drugs were identified using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), and the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System respectively. The reports of adverse reactions were classified according to their seriousness.
Results: From 2004 to 2010, 2516 notifications were received (2383 adverse reactions, 106 lack of efficacy, 26 quality failures). These notifications included 151 cardiovascular adverse reactions and 594 adverse reactions caused by cardiovascular drugs. In the first group, of the 151 cardiovascular adverse reactions through MedDRA SOC classification caused by all ATC group classes, 118 (78.2%) were caused by non cardiovascular drugs. Among them antimicrobials (27,2%) and neurologic drugs (21,2%) were the most frequent. 22 (14.6%) adverse reactions were serious. Long QT syndrome, peripheral edema, hypotension, tachycardia, and bradycardia, were the most frequent. In the second group, of the 594 reports identifying adverse reactions involving all MedDRA SOCs but caused only by cardiovascular drugs, 559 reports (94.1%) were non cardiovascular adverse reactions. Enalapril and furosemide accounted for 65.2% there were 33 (5.6%) serious adverse reactions. The most frequent adverse reactions were hyponatremia, impaired renal function, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, edema, and cough.
Conclusion: Non-cardiovascular adverse reactions were the most frequent manifestation of adverse drug reactions caused by cardiovascular drugs and cardiovascular adverse reactions were most often caused by non cardiovascular drugs. This report highlights the importance of systematic evaluation of adverse drug reactions.
Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, pharmacoepidemiology, cardiology, adverse reactions, QT syndrome, Non-cardiovascular adverse reaction, systematic evaluation of ADR, MedDRA