Two areas of spondyloarthritis (SpA) are subjects of intense research: pathogenesis and identification of biomarkers of disease activity. Concerning pathogenesis, it is commonly accepted that HLA-B27 is an essential gene for a prototype of SpA called ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Although a MHC class I molecule, studies of HLA-B27 have revealed biology unusual for other HLA class I alleles. The latest surprise is that this protein has a slow rate of biogenesis inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and hence might in certain circumstances potentially lead to generation of the ER unfolded protein response. First demonstrated with cultured cell lines, this hypothesis has found fortuitous support during microarray screening of synovial fluid cells derived from SpA patients. Preliminary experiments based on microarray analyses suggest that the targets of the ER responses are cells of the macrophage lineage. Previous research on AS has been focused almost exclusively on T lymphocytes. These microarray results provide investigators with new target cells for future studies. Concerning biomarkers of disease activity, microarray analyses have also provided support for a previously suspected candidate: metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3). The potential usefulness of serum levels of this biomarker has now been demonstrated in cohorts of patients derived from three different countries. If reproducible in additional cohort studies, it might become a tool in clinical practice.
Keywords: MMP, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease, TNF blockers, HLA class I alleles, microarray chips
HLA-B27 Uveitis is the Most Common Type of Uveitis in Ethnic Chinese
Current Rheumatology Reviews Imaging Characteristics of Spondyloarthropathy
Current Rheumatology Reviews Ankylosing Spondylitis Among Familial Mediterranean Fever Patients
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets The Link Between Klebsiella and Ankylosing Spondylitis in Worldwide Geographical Locations
Current Rheumatology Reviews The Role of Autophagy in Rheumatic Disease
Current Drug Targets The Expanding Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors in the Management of Rheumatic Diseases
Medicinal Chemistry Reviews - Online (Discontinued) Cardiovascular Involvement in Pediatric Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: The Emerging Role of Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued) Tumor Necrosis Factor Blocking Therapy and Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders: A Systematic Review
Current Medicinal Chemistry A Proposed Serum Calprotectin IgG Cut-Off Level for Diagnosing Inflammatory Arthritis
Current Rheumatology Reviews Bisphosphonates-Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis with Biologic Agents
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Central Nervous System Involvement in Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases: Current Concepts in Treatment
Current Pharmaceutical Design TNF alpha Inhibition as Treatment Modality for Certain Rheumatologic and Gastrointestinal Diseases
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Excess Cardiovascular Risk in Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Pathophysiology and Targeted Therapy
Current Pharmaceutical Design Ankylosing Spondylitis, HLA-B27, Klebsiella and “Popper Sequences”
Current Rheumatology Reviews Periodontal Pathogens are Likely to be Responsible for the Development of Ankylosing Spondylitis
Current Rheumatology Reviews COX-2 Selective Inhibitors in the Treatment of Arthritis: A Rheumatologist Perspective
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Intestinal Microbiota: A Regulator of Intestinal Inflammation and Cardiac Ischemia?
Current Drug Targets Can We Extrapolate Data from One Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease to Another One?
Current Medicinal Chemistry Association of IL33 and IL1RAP Polymorphisms With Acute Anterior Uveitis
Current Molecular Medicine