Many studies have been conducted on the effects of red wine polyphenols on certain diseases, primarily, coronary heart disease (CHD) and, in this respect, evidence has been demonstrated that intake of red wine is associated with a reduction of CHD symptomatology. In this framework, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the effects of polyphenols on immune cells from human healthy peripheral blood. Data will show that polyphenols are able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-10 as well as immunoglobulins may be important for host protection in different immune related disorders. Another important aspect pointed out in this review is the release of nitric oxide (NO) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), stimulated by red wine polyphenols despite the fact that the majority of studies have reported NO production only by endothelial cells. Release of NO from PBMC may play an important role in cardiovascular disease, because it is known that this molecule acts as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. On the other hand, NO exerts a protective role against infectious organisms. Finally, some molecular cytoplasmatic pathways elicited by polyphenols able to regulate certain immune responses will also be discussed. In particular, it seems that p38, a molecule belonging to the MAPK family, is involved in the release of IFN-γ and, therefore, in NO production. All these data confirm the beneficial effects of polyphenols in some chronic diseases.
Keywords: polyphenols, immune system, cytokines, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide, atherosclerosis, red wine
Evidence of Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia
Current Cardiology Reviews A New Practice: Study on the Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine by Computational Pharmacology Methods: Part 2: Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Distribution on Ligand-Target Space of Effective Components
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors
Current Cardiology Reviews Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitors
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Oxidative Stress and Pathophysiology of Ischemic Stroke: Novel Therapeutic Opportunities
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Statins as Anti-Inflammatory Agents in Atherogenesis: Molecular Mechanisms and Lessons from the Recent Clinical Trials
Current Pharmaceutical Design A Systematic Review on Levosimendan in Paediatric Patients
Current Vascular Pharmacology Role of Oxidative Stress in Development of Cardiovascular Complications in Diabetes Mellitus
Current Vascular Pharmacology Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization in the Pediatric Population
Current Cardiology Reviews How Effective are the Lipid Modifying Medicines at Preventing Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome?
Vascular Disease Prevention Tissue Regeneration: From Synthetic Scaffolds to Self-Organizing Morphogenesis
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy Improving RBC K Transport and Hemoglobin-O2 Binding by Amiloride: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Reversion of Angina and Myocardial Ischemia in Coronary Heart Diseases
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases Modeling
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy Estrogen, Neuroprotection and Neurogenesis after Ischemic Stroke
Current Drug Targets Docosahexaenoic Acid and Membrane Lipid Domains
Current Organic Chemistry Antiarrhythmic Therapy on Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients After Heart Surgery
Current Medicinal Chemistry - Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents Lipid-lowering Drug Therapy in Elderly Patients
Current Pharmaceutical Design Dyslipidemia as a Risk Factor for Erectile Dysfunction
Current Medicinal Chemistry Familial Combined Hyperlipidaemia: Under - Defined and Under - Diagnosed?
Current Vascular Pharmacology Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Children
Current Cardiology Reviews