Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an advanced and chronic endocrine disorder characterized by an insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and liver, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles.
Objective: The main objective of this study is to understand the mechanism and genes which are responsible for the prevalence of diabetes. The study also covers various types of diabetic complications with special reference to insulin role and defects.
Methods: The scientific literature and patents were reviewed and analyzed based on their suitability and relevance to the theme of the study. The scientific literature was covered from the authentic databases such as Elsevier, Springer, and Bentham Science. The patents were reviewed from http://www.freepatentsonline.com.
Results: Glucokinase (ATP: D-glucose-6-phosphotransferase; GCK), initiates glycolysis and acts as a glucose sensor and metabolic signal producer in liver and pancreas. PCR-sequencing showed qualitative differences in diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Glucokinase is the most important component in glucose detection of pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes because glucokinase mutations can be one of the most common single gene disorders described. It is known that a genetic variation of a human glucokinase gene, including a point mutation, causes MODY, the concentration of plasma glucose increased and it is supposed to be the cause of diabetes of the present study subjects. Owing to hyperglycemia and individual components of the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome, people with Type II DM are prone to the high threat for microvascular complications (including nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as Ischemic Heart Disease). There were also significant differences (P < 0.0001) in glycation levels (0.90, 0.4838mole/mole), random blood sugar (348.8, 105.8mg/dL), cholesterol levels (235.3, 161.8mg/dL), low density lipoprotein in diabetic subjects (155.3, 28.46mg/dL) and in healthy donors. GCK gene mutations were found in 70% of the patients while 30% are non-mutated.
Conclusion: In conclusion, lipids, glucose, and protein play an essential role in the initiation of AGE’s or diabetic complications (Micro and Macrovascular Complications). The importance of the clinical results should also be recognized in the genetic analysis of heterogeneous disorders as NIDDM/ Type II DM.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, genetics, glucokinase, insulin, MODY, NIDDM, polymorphism.
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