Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new promising class of antitumor drugs that have been associated with a number of immune-related Adverse Events (AEs), including musculoskeletal and rheumatic disease.
Methods: We searched Medline reviewing reports of musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Results: Several musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment are reported in the literature. In particular, arthralgia and myalgia were the most common reported AEs, whereas the prevalence of arthritis, myositis and vasculitis is less characterized and mainly reported in case series and case reports. Other occasionally described AEs are sicca syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis.
Conclusion: Newly induced musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases are a frequent adverse event associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment.
Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-PD1, anti-CTLA4, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, rheumatic diseases, musculoskeletal diseases.