Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is one of the leading causes of death in western countries. Surgery is still, at the present time, the sole treatment that has however a significant mortality and cost rate. Many pharmacological agents are under investigation aiming to reduce growth and prevent AAA rupture. These drugs target different pathological pathways and, notably, the excessive production of prostanoids by cyclooxygenases (COX). Intra-aneurysmal thrombus plays an adverse key role in the progression of AAA, platelets being a primary source of prostanoids as thromboxane A2.
Objective: In this review, we summarize studies targeting prostanoids production and down-stream pathways in cardiovascular diseases, and more specifically in AAA.
Results and Conclusion: Various inhibitors of COX or antagonists of prostanoids receptors have been investigated in AAA animal models with conflicting results. In human AAA, only a few number of studies focused on anti-platelet therapy mostly using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA), a COX1 inhibitor. Finally, we report preliminary promising results of a model of AAA in rats receiving a thromboxane A2 inhibitor, BM-573 that induced a reduction of aneurysmal growth.
Keywords: Abdominal aortic aneurysm, prostanoids, thromboxane A2, acetylsalicylic acid, platelet, cyclooxygenase.