Background: Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection.
Methods: A literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science was performed. Articles up to Mar, 2017, were selected for inclusion. The search was conducted using MeSH terms, with the following key terms: [human immunodeficiency virus AND (cardiovascular disease OR coronary heart disease) AND (antiretroviral therapy AND (cardiovascular disease OR coronary heart disease))].
Results: Clinical cardiovascular disease tends to appear approximately 10 years before in infected individuals, when compared to the general population. The pathogenesis behind the cardiovascular, HIV-associated complications is complex and multifactorial, involving traditional CVD risk factors, as well as factors associated with the virus itself - immune activation and chronic inflammation – and the metabolic disorders related to ART regimens.
Conclusion: Determining the cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients, as well as targeting and treating conditions that predispose to CVD, are now emerging concerns among physicians.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk.
Hypertensive Pharmacogenomics in African Americans
Current Pharmacogenomics Sarcolemmal K<sub>ATP</sub> Channel Modulators and Cardiac Arrhythmias
Current Medicinal Chemistry From Mars to Venus: Gender Differences in the Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndromes
Current Pharmaceutical Design Percutaneous Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease: Contemporary Overview and Future Trends
Current Pharmaceutical Design Potential Targets for Intervention in Radiation-Induced Heart Disease
Current Drug Targets Polyphenols from Red Wine Modulate Immune Responsiveness: Biological and Clinical Significance
Current Pharmaceutical Design Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Diabetes
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Pharmacokinetics and Biotransformation of Tea Polyphenols
Current Drug Metabolism Body Mass Index, Lipid Metabolism and Estrogens: Their Impact on Coronary Heart Disease
Current Medicinal Chemistry Editorial [Hot Topic: Heart Transplantation in Congenital Heart Disease (Guest Editor: Francesco Parisi)]
Current Cardiology Reviews Pentraxins: CRP and PTX3 and Cardiovascular Disease
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued) Impacts of Nanoparticles on Cardiovascular Diseases: Modulating Metabolism and Function of Endothelial Cells
Current Drug Metabolism Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus: Relevance to Vascular Complications
Current Pharmaceutical Design Toxics of Tobacco Smoke and Cardiovascular System: From Functional to Cellular Damage
Current Pharmaceutical Design Computational Biological Analysis Reveals a Role for Nitric Oxide Synthase and Adiponectin in the Pathobiology of Insulin Resistance Syndrome and Coronary Artery Disease
Current Nutrition & Food Science Benefits of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in Disease Prevention
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets Cardioprotection by Regular Ethanol Consumption: Potential Mechanisms and Clinical Application
Current Drug Abuse Reviews Mutations and Common Polymorphisms in ADAMTS13 and vWF Genes Responsible for Increasing Risk of Thrombosis
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets The Potential Role of Antioxidants in Metabolic Syndrome
Current Pharmaceutical Design Cardioprotection Techniques: Preconditioning, Postconditioning and Remote Con-ditioning (Basic Science)
Current Pharmaceutical Design