Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) follow untreated S. pyogenes throat infections in children who present susceptible genes that favor the development of autoimmune reactions. In this review, we focus on the genes that confer susceptibility and on the autoimmune reactions that occur due to molecular mimicry between human-tissue proteins and streptococcal M protein. Polyarthritis is the initial manifestation, which can evolve to carditis and severe valve damage; these culminate in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) or Sydenham’s chorea, which affects the central nervous system. A perspective on vaccine development to prevent the disease is also discussed.
Keywords: Rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, M protein, genes, cytokines, T and B lymphocytes, heart-tissue proteins, anti-S. pyogenes vaccine.
Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa
Current Cardiology Reviews Vaccine Development for Group A Streptococcus Infections and Associated Diseases
Current Drug Targets High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Relation to Multi-Cerebral Microbleeds in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and/or Rheumatic Heart Disease
Current Neurovascular Research T Cell Response in Rheumatic Fever: Crossreactivity Between Streptococcal M Protein Peptides and Heart Tissue Proteins
Current Protein & Peptide Science Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases with Anti-Inflammatory and Anti- Oxidant Nutraceuticals and Herbal Products: An Overview of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery Pediatric Heart Failure in the Developing World
Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials Cerebral Microbleeds Do Not Predict Hemorrhagic Transformation in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and/or Rheumatic Heart Disease
Current Neurovascular Research Adherence to Secondary Prophylaxis for Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease: A Systematic Review
Current Cardiology Reviews