The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the potential role of oxidative stress in the mechanisms of AAS-induced toxicity. The adverse effects of chronic consumption of supraphysiological doses of AAS include endocrine, behavioral, hepatic, renal and cardiovascular abnormalities; this is of considerable importance because of the wellknown AAS abuse by adolescent bodybuilders and athletes and the emergence of adverse side effects including a number of cardiac and cardiovascular complications leading eventually to death in some cases. Accumulating evidence indicate that abuse of AAS may cause cardiovascular adverse side-effects including elevated blood pressure, alteration of the structure of the heart, congestive heart failure, stroke, sudden cardiac death and endothelial dysfunction. Under normal physiological conditions a major source of ROS in liver is mitochondria, additional sources in generating ROS are peroxisomes, xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidase, acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P-450. Poor information are available on the effects of AAS treatment on hepatic antioxidant capacity. Evidence of side effects affecting kidney and the renal function are sporadically emerging from clinical reports of renal disorders among AASs users, especially with elevated and prolonged use. Experimental evidence suggests that both nandrolone administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. From the data presented, we can realize that to date considerable research has led to the identification of a growing number of AAS-adverse effects due to abuse of these substances.
Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids, cardiac pathology, kidney alterations, liver damage, oxidative stress.
Natriuretic Peptide Testing in Primary Care
Current Cardiology Reviews Towards Optimal Heart Failure Care: Couples-Oriented Strategies to Improve Patient Adherence and Health Outcomes
Current Cardiology Reviews The Problem of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Current Vascular Pharmacology Use of BNP and CRP as Biomarkers in Assessing Cardiovascular Disease:Diagnosis Versus Risk
Current Vascular Pharmacology Statins and Left Ventricular Function
Current Pharmaceutical Design Impact of GLP-1 and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes
Current Diabetes Reviews The Role of microRNAs in Cardiovascular Disease
Current Medicinal Chemistry Improvement of Nonviral Gene Therapy by Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-based Plasmid Vectors
Current Gene Therapy Up-Regulation of the Cardiac Lipid Metabolism at the Onset of Heart Failure
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Myocardial Regeneration: What is the Best Approach?
Current Cardiology Reviews Clinical Approach to Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: A Review of Human Studies
Current Medicinal Chemistry Management of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure with Volume Overload
Current Pharmaceutical Design α2-Antiplasmin on Cardiovascular Diseases
Current Pharmaceutical Design PPAR- γ Agonist in Treatment of Diabetes: Cardiovascular Safety Considerations
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Renal and Cardiac Effects of Renal Sympathetic Denervation and Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation
Current Vascular Pharmacology A Novel Design of Combining the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Captopril with the Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) Losartan Using Homo Coupling via PEG Diacid Linker
Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery (Discontinued) Taurine Analogues; A New Class of Therapeutics: Retrospect and Prospects
Current Medicinal Chemistry Pure Polyphenols Applications for Cardiac Health and Disease
Current Pharmaceutical Design The Role of Statins in Preventing the Progression of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
Current Pharmaceutical Design Turnover Studies on Cardiac Natriuretic Peptides: Methodological,Pathophysiological and Therapeutical Considerations.
Current Drug Metabolism