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Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Eiditor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-8871
ISSN (Online): 1876-1038

Possible Pathomechanisms Responsible for Injury to the Central Nervous System in the Settings of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

Author(s): Marian Simka

Volume 7 , Issue 2 , 2012

Page: [93 - 99] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/157488712800100198

Price: $58

Abstract

The discovery of stenoses in the azygous and internal jugular veins, the so-called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency that accompanies multiple sclerosis, has enabled the reinterpretation of knowledge about this neurologic disease. Pathologic venous outflow from the central nervous system appears to lead to two main problems. Firstly, it disassembles the blood-brain barrier and may allow the penetration of nervous parenchyma by glutamate and leukocytes. Secondly, it may result in significant hypoperfusion of the brain and spinal cord. These two overlapping pathologies are likely to trigger plaques through caspase-1-driven pyroptosis of oligodendrocytes and to evoke neurodegeneration via glutamate excitotoxicity. Moreover, brain hypoperfusion may lead to chronic fatigue and other global neurologic symptoms. It is hoped that this review will help to elucidate new strategies and treatments for multiple sclerosis and will show new avenues for the research on this debilitating disease.

Keywords: Axonal injury, azygous vein, blood-brain barrier, caspase 1, glutamate, jugular veins, multiple sclerosis, venous insufficiency


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