As the result of the use of blood culture vials for seeding joint and bone exudates, and nucleic acid amplification methods, Kingella kingae is emerging as an important pathogen in patients < 3 years of age. The organism is carried asymptomatically in the oropharynx of young children, coinciding with the age of increased attack rate of invasive disease, and propagates through close personal contact. Carriage of K. kingae is a dynamic process with frequent turnover of strains after weeks or months of continuous or intermittent colonization. Colonizing K. kingae enters the bloodstream through breaches in the respiratory mucosa and disseminates to bones, joints, or the endocardium. Daycare attendance increases the risk for K. kingae acquisition and transmission, and outbreaks of invasive disease have been reported among children in daycare. The most common manifestations of K. kingae disease in children are skeletal system infections (in 56% of patients), bacteremia (in 39%), pneumonia (in 4%), and endocarditis (in 1%). The clinical presentation is often subtle and laboratory tests are frequently normal, requiring a high index of suspicion. The organism is susceptible to most antibiotics, and with the exception of cases of endocarditis, invasive K. kingae infections usually run a benign uncomplicated clinical course.
Keywords: Kingella kingae, children, daycare centers, pathogenesis, carriage, invasive infection
Research Progress in Live Attenuated Brucella Vaccine Development
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Chemical Countermeasures for the Control of Bacterial Biofilms: Effective Compounds and Promising Targets
Current Medicinal Chemistry Para-prosthetic Leaks Following Mitral Valve Replacement: Case Analysis on a 20-year Period
Current Cardiology Reviews Registered and Investigational Drugs for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery Indications for Surgery and Operative Techniques in Infective Endocarditis in the Present Day
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Glucocorticoids and the Cardiovascular System: State of the Art
Current Pharmaceutical Design Drainage of Cerebral Abscesses Prior to Valve Replacement in Stable Patients with Acute Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Discovery of Medically Significant Lantibiotics
Current Drug Discovery Technologies Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance for Evaluation of Heart Involvement in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis. A Luxury or a Valuable Diagnostic Tool?
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued) Current Status of Molecular Imaging in Infections
Current Pharmaceutical Design Prediction of Degeneration of Native and Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves:Issue-Related Particularities of Diabetes Mellitus
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Dealing with the Substance Abuse Epidemic and Infective Endocarditis:Clinical, Immunologic and Pathogenetic Aspects
Current Vascular Pharmacology Staphylococcus aureus: The Toxic Presence of a Pathogen Extraordinaire
Current Medicinal Chemistry Complications of Infective Endocarditis
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Triple-Valve Endocarditis in a Diabetic Patient: Case Report and Literature Review
Current Cardiology Reviews Current Indications for Infective Endocarditis Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets Structure and Function of the Type III Secretion System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Current Protein & Peptide Science Daptomycin: A Review of Properties, Clinical Use, Drug Delivery and Resistance
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nanoparticles in Cardiovascular Diseases
Current Pharmaceutical Design Infective Endocarditis Complicating Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Is Antibiotic Prophylaxis Really Unnecessary?
Current Cardiology Reviews