Left ventricular hypertrabeculation / noncompaction (LVHT) is in the majority of the cases associated with hereditary cardiac or skeletal muscle disease or with chromosomal abnormalities. Depending on the study more than two thirds of the LVHT patients also present with a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). NMDs most frequently associated with LVHT are the Barth syndrome, mitochondrial disorders, zaspopathy, and myotonic dystrophies. NMDs only occasionally presenting with LVHT are the dystrobrevinopathy, laminopathies, dystrophinopathies, myoadenylat-deaminase deficiency, hereditary inclusion body myositis and the hereditary neuropathy CMT1A. A causal relation between NMDs and LVHT is likely, although the exact relationship and pathomechanic association remains elusive. The close pathogenetic relation is supported by the fact that the phenomenon of acquired LVHT occurs predominantly in NMDs. Consequent referral of LVHT patients to the neurologist, consequent referral of NMD patients to the cardiologist, and family investigations may help to elucidate unsolved issues concerning the pathogenesis, course and prognosis of LVHT.
Keywords: Hypertrabeculation, spongy myocardium, echocardiography, systolic function, embolism, stroke, myopathy, neuropathy, peripheral nervous system, Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT), neuromuscular disorder, zaspopathy, myotonic dystrophies, dystrobrevinopathy, laminopathies, dystrophinopathies, myoadenylat-deaminase deficiency, Becker muscular dystrophy, mitochondrial disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myoadenylate-deaminase, Laminopathy, Myotonic dystrophy type 2, cyclic neutropenia, methyl-glutaconic acid, hypocholesterolemia, tafazzine (TAZ), glycerolipid trans-ferases, tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin, lactacidosis, hyperammonaemia, hypoglyce-mia, malignant arrhythmias, nail-patella syndrome, leucodystrophy, desmin, B-crystallin, myotillin gene, pseudomyotonic discharges, ophthalmoplegia, dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, Transthoracic echocardiography, sinusbradycardia, Inclusion body Myopathy, myalgias, polyarthralgias, hyper-CK-emia, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias